Glossary of Property Investment Terms
There are a lot of terms unique to the investment world that will be new to those just embarking on building a property portfolio. That’s why we thought it would be very useful for you to have a thorough Glossary of Property Investment Terms to help you to thoroughly understand some of the finer points of investing. We hope you find it useful!
A class of shares which have specific rights attached to them, as set out in a company’s articles of association.
Investors who provide investment and other support to early-stage businesses. Traditionally angels are wealthy individuals who have a significant amount of entrepreneurial, industry or investment experience.
Angel Network (or Angel Syndicate)
A group of angel investors that pool together money and other resources to invest in, and provide support to, early-stage businesses.
Average return each year over the minimum term, based on the total of rental income and estimated capital growth.
Articles of Association
A company document that sets out its management and administrative structure.
The articles dictate the internal affairs of the company such as director and shareholder rights, the issue and transfer of shares, and the organisation of meetings.
A class of economic property that has similar characteristics. Listed shares, government bonds and real estate are all asset classes.
A class of shares which have specific rights attached to them, as set out in the company’s articles of association.
Below Market Value (BMV)
Properties are sometimes sold at below the market value, meaning they are offered at lower prices than comparable properties.
Beneficial Shareholder / Owner
An investor who owns the economic value and other shareholder benefits attached to shares, such as dividends and tax reliefs, but the registered title to their shares is held with another person or entity often for administrative convenience.
Bridging loans are a short-term funding option. They are used to ‘bridge’ a gap between a debt coming due – primarily for property transactions – and the main line of credit becoming available. Alternatively, they can act as a short-term loan in pressing circumstances.
The sum of shareholders’ equity and debt liabilities; can be simplified as Total Assets – Current Liabilities.
The increase in value of an asset or investment over time, measured on the basis of the current value of the asset or investment, in relation to the amount originally invested in it.
An equity investment where money is invested in a company in exchange for shares to be issued at a later date. The share issue is generally triggered by the company raising finance from other investors. In return for investing early, the convertible equity investors receive a discount on the price of the shares issued to the other investors.
A debt investment where money is invested in a company with the expectation that the debt will “convert” into shares issued at a later date. The share issue is generally triggered by the company raising finance from other investors. Before the conversion, the investor is paid interest.
The funding of projects or ventures by raising money from a large number of people, usually online. The three main types of crowdfunding are equity, debt and rewards/donations.
Damp Proof Course (DPC)
A barrier through the structure by capillary action such as through a phenomenon known as rising damp.
Money owed by one person/company to another. The borrower has to repay the money at a later date and generally also has to pay interest.
A reduction in the ownership percentage of a share in a company caused by the issue of new shares.
An investment strategy that involves mixing the amount, values and kinds of investments within a portfolio to spread risk and minimise losses.
A dividend is a distribution of a portion of a company’s earnings, decided by the board of directors, to a class of its shareholders. Dividends can be issued as cash payments, as shares of stock, or other property.
The distribution of a portion of a company’s profits to investors.
A contractual obligation that allows majority shareholders to force minority shareholders to join in the sale of a company on the same terms, valuation and conditions of the majority shareholders.
Enterprise Investment Scheme (EIS)
A UK tax scheme offering income tax and capital gains tax reliefs to qualifying private investors who invest in eligible businesses.
Shares or other securities that represent an ownership interest in a company.
A type of crowdfunding that enables multiple investors to a buy shares, or other equity interests, in a company, usually through an online process.
An event when investors may be able to cash in and sell their shares, such as an initial public offering (IPO) or trade sale.
Documentary evidence that the installation work has been self-certified to comply with the Building Regulations
Financial Conduct Authority (FCA)
The financial services regulatory body in the UK, formerly called the Financial Services Authority (FSA).
All the shares of a company in issue, plus all shares which are the subject of options or other contractual rights to be issued in the future (regardless of whether the right has vested).
An investment opportunity that seeks to raise money to be invested across multiple businesses. Fund campaigns are commonly used to invest in businesses participating in accelerator programmes and competition winners.
Gas Safety Certificate
By law, landlords must have all gas appliances serviced regularly, normally once a year, by a Gas Safe registered engineer.
Gross Development Value (GDV)
The estimated value that a property, or new development, would fetch on the open market if it were to be sold in the current economic climate.
Gross Rate of Return
The total rate of return on an investment before deduction of any fees or expenses. The gross rate of return is quoted over a specific period of time, such as a month, quarter or year. It is often quoted as the rate of return on an investment in marketing materials.
The stage that a business is at when it has passed its ‘seed’ or initial stage and has established proof of concept and looking to grow.
The yield on an investment before the deduction of taxes and expenses (such as management fees and maintenance costs). Gross yield is expressed in percentage terms. It is calculated as the annual return on an investment prior to taxes and expenses divided by the current price of the investment.
High Net Worth Investor (HNWI)
A classification used by the financial services industry to denote an individual, or a family, with high net worth. If you earn more than £100,000 a year or have net assets of more than £250,000, you may qualify as a High Net Worth Investor.
HMO (House in Multiple Occupation)
A house occupied by more than two qualifying persons, being persons who are not all members of the same family. A “qualifying person” is a person whose only or principal place of residence is the HMO.
Initial Public Offering (IPO)
The first time that a company’s shares are available for public purchase by means of a listing on a stock exchange. This process is also known as ’going public’ or ‘floating’.
Know Your Client (KYC)
The regulatory process that financial services firms and certain other businesses must perform to verify the identity of their customers to help prevent against money laundering and other financial crimes.
Loan to Value (LTV)
A term commonly used by banks and building societies to represent the ratio of the first mortgage lien as a percentage of the total appraised value of real property. For instance, if someone borrows £130,000 to purchase a house worth £150,000, the LTV ratio is £130,000 to £150,000 or £130,000/£150,000, or 87%. The remaining 13% represent the lender’s ‘haircut’, adding up to 100% and being covered from the borrower’s equity. The higher the LTV ratio then the riskier the loan is for a lender.
Local Housing Authority (LHA)
The main provider of social housing (or housing authorities) for people who cannot afford to buy their own homes. Local authority housing is allocated according to eligibility and need. Rents are based on the household’s ability to pay.
The actual profit after deducting expenses, such as management fees, letting fees, maintenance costs which are were not included in the calculation of gross profit, have been paid.
Net yield is everything after expenses. It takes into account all fees and expenses associated with owning a property. It is a far more accurate way of calculating actual yield. It is also much harder to calculate as most costs are variable.
A person or firm that holds assets, such as shares on behalf of another, enabling the nominee to handle complicated administrative matters.
Open Market Value (OMV)
The realistic price that could be achieved for a property if marketed for sale.
A right granted which gives the receiver an option, but not an obligation, to buy (or sell) shares in a company, or other securities, at an agreed price within a certain time frame.
Shares which represent normal equity ownership in a company. Ordinary shares generally entitle the owner to vote at shareholder meetings, receive dividends, and receive distributions on the winding up of a company, but do not carry preferential treatment.
Pre-Emption (Also called Anti-Dilution)
A contractual provision which requires the company to offer its shareholders the chance to purchase additional shares to maintain their percentage of equity in advance of further shares being issued.
A group of financial assets such as shares, property or bonds, held by one person or entity.
Portable Appliance Testing (PAT)
The name of a process by which electrical appliances are routinely checked for safety.
The period of time after an investment has been made in a company.
A class of shares which have specific preferential rights attached to them, as set out in the company’s articles of association. Typically the preference will be a dividend paid in priority to other shareholders, or priority to distributions on the winding up of the company.
A classification used by the financial services industry to denote an individual or family.
A calculation to give an indication of annual returns based on the rental income against how much the property cost: Property Yield (%) = Rental Income/(Property purchase price + Refurbishment Budget).
Registered Social Landlord (RSL)
Registered providers that own and manage social housing.
Return on Capital Employed (ROCE)
The return on capital employed is, considered by some, a better measurement than return on equity, because ROCE shows how well a company is using both its equity and debt to generate a return.
Building surveyors, like all surveyors, inspect property or land. RICS (Royal Institute of Chartered Surveyors) is a professional body for chartered surveyors, which includes chartered building surveyors. RICS sets standards and guidance for surveyors and provides training and professional development opportunities for surveyors to comply with changing standards and legislation.
The potential for losing something of value. With equity investment the main risk to the investor is losing the money invested.
A market where investors purchase shares from other investors rather than from the company that has issued the shares directly.
An agreement between a company’s shareholders detailing certain rights and obligations of the shareholders.
An ownership interest in a company which entitles the shareholder to certain rights, for example a share of profits or dividend payments from the company. Shares are also referred to as “stock”.
Investments that comply with Islamic law and principles, eg. ethical investments with no borrowing where investors share in the profits and losses.
Solicitors Regulatory Authority (SRA)
The regulatory body for solicitors in England and Wales.
A type of investor who is deemed to have sufficient investing experience and knowledge to weigh the risks and merits of an investment opportunity. This category is for people who have invested in shares in more than one unlisted company (including via The House Crowd) in the last two years or have been a member of a business angel syndicate or network for at least six months including The House Crowd’s Investor group.
Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV)
A Company set up for a particular purpose. In the case of The House Crowd, SPV’s are set up for the purpose of purchasing/owning a property on behalf of the investors.
An agreement between a company and investors purchasing shares in the company. It sets out the terms of the share purchase and details certain rights and obligations of the company and the investors as shareholders.
A contractual obligation which gives minority shareholders the right, but not the obligation, to join a transaction where shares are sold by majority shareholders, on the same terms, valuation and conditions of the majority shareholders.
A non-binding agreement addressing the basic terms and conditions under which an investment will be made in a business. A term sheet often serves as a template to develop more detailed legal investment documentation.
An asset or property that is free and clear of any encumbrances such as creditor claims or liens. An unencumbered asset is much easier to sell or transfer than one with an encumbrance. Examples of typical unencumbered assets are a house without any mortgage or other lien on it, a car where the automobile loan has been paid off or stocks purchased in a cash account, rather than a margin account.
The monetary worth of a business or property as determined by considering both qualitative and quantitative factors.
We hope you found this useful. If you have any questions, then please don’t hesitate to get in touch with us. We’re always here to help you with anything you might want to talk about, so do drop us a line!